A TERM DERIVED from the word for chart (charte) or drawing, cartography is traditionally defined as the art and science of making maps. But over the years, a great deal of theoretical and practical research has been done in all aspects of the subject, including work on map projections, map designs, map visualization, cartograms, terrain models, and the incorporation of new computer-based technologies such as geographic information system (GIS) data and remote sensing images into the map-making process. These research and technological developments have increased the utility of cartography for services such as geographic data display, storage and analysis, communication, planning, and decision making. At present, the International Cartographic Association defines cartography as the art, science, and technology of making maps, together with their study as scientific documents and works of art. An understanding of general cartography trends can proceed along 2 interconnected pathways. In the first pathway, the emphasis is usually on the finished map product together with evaluations about the map functionalities, techniques used, symbology, and aesthetics. In the second pathway, the emphasis is on the data-surveying and compilation aspects of the mapping process. Historical maps and their presentation as graphical objects such as atlases and sheet maps are characteristic of the first “map product” pathway. Later, the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) into mapping and the inevitable data generation and processing consequences have come to define the “data compilation” pathway. In this second pathway, the impact of the mapping process on the map output is the major focus of study.