FROM THE ONSET of trade, the merchant traders established colonies in the foreign places where they did business. Those early merchant colonies were not colonialist in the strict sense. The merchants resided in foreign cities by the grace of the city officials. More commonly, colonialists dominated the indigenous peoples. The Greeks and Romans established military posts in the territory they conquered. The Greeks had most of the eastern Mediterranean islands, and the Romans had control of Istanbul, Turkey, and North Africa to Gaul and Britain. The Roman garrisons included women for working in the fields and increasing the population to the point that the post could become a self-sustaining settlement. The English tried the same philosophy in Ireland and Virginia, with initial failures giving way to eventual success. Another case of losing some and winning others came late in the first millennium. The Vikings colonized Greenland and Newfoundland, but the colonies failed for lack of support from home. The Norsemen, during their heyday when much of was dark and isolated, enjoyed greater success in colonizing france, Sicily, Ireland and England, establishing a permanent presence as Normans. Colonizing efforts were also part of the Crusades from the 11th to 13th centuries. And the Mongols of Central Asia established an empire in the 13th and 14th centuries that stretched from the Ural Mountains to Russia. The Mongols were cavalry, as were the Ottomans who established an empire that included North Africa, the Middle East, and the Balkans. The Ottoman Empire lasted from the 13th into the 20th century. African and American indigenous peoples were also builders of empires—the Fulani and Zulu of Africa and the Inca and Aztec of the Americas.