THE IDEA OF FOOTLOOSE industries has changed along with the transformation from an industrial to a postindustrial economy. The core concept remains the same, however: A footloose industry does not have a strong locational preference because the resources, production skills, and consumers on which it depends can be found in numerous places. Such a company may therefore be more prone to relocation, hence the term footloose. Footloose industries became prevalent in geographic parlance during the quantitative approach in geography from the 1950s onward. Economic geographers interested in industrial location borrowed ideas and methodology from neo-classical economics. The basic premises of footloose industries are derived from the work of German economist Alfred Weber, who was probably the first to theorize on the location of industries in the beginning of the 20th century. First, we must assume that the most important factor in industrial location is the cost of transportation (however, this is less and less true over time). Some industries may have a strong resource orientation, that is, if the raw material used in a production process is heavy and bulky in character, it makes sense to be located close to those natural resources. Heavy manufacturing districts around the world (e.g., the steel industry in northeastern United States) are usually located near major coal deposits. Such a resource-oriented location is often combined with good access to important transportation routes. Other types of manufacturing can be market-oriented. (Traditionally, the footloose concept has been applied in manufacturing, once the dominant sector in the economy.) Let’s take the example of a dairy. If we assume that cows can graze just about anywhere and that milk is a perishable commodity, dairy production should be located close to the consumers the industry serves. For both resource and market orientation, the locational choices of industries are limited, or dressed in more theoretical language, and the so-called spatial margins to profitability are narrow. The opposite is true for a footloose industry. If raw material is easily accessible in numerous locations, markets are dispersed, and the physical properties of the commodity are such that transportation cost makes up a small portion of total cost, the locational choice is much greater.