THE ENVIRONMENTAL approach in geography, history, anthropology, psychology, and other spheres of humanitarian thought remains one of the most alluring and unequivocal since its origin in ancient times. At the beginning of the 21st century, interdisciplinary studies of cultural history using contemporary methods of instrumental analysis are often bringing scientists to the necessity of taking environmental issues into account when conceptualizing local peculiarities of cultural evolution. As a result, an impressive variety of theories and concepts has been elaborated in the framework of scientific and humanitarian thought during the second half of the 20th century. Trying to navigate in this boundless theoretical space, an inquisitive researcher inevitably faces the necessity to create some kind of exploratory structure encompassing these approaches and notions. Here, comprehension of human agency in natural environment evolution has been chosen as the main criterion of examination of human-nature interaction. On this base, three main directions of environmental thought development can be distinguished in contemporary humanitarian and scientific thought. One of them, known as geographical determinism, concentrates on the environmental impact on human history. The second, concerning human agency in nature development, became popular alongside global reconsideration of the human role in the universe, which took place at the time of the scientific revolution. Adepts of a third direction tend to interpret human-environment interaction as an integrated system, all elements of which are of equal importance and are engaged in complicated reciprocal influence.