THE MODERN CONCEPT of nationalism was born with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. Before then, was a checkerboard of small states, cities, principalities, and alliances united by religions, language, history, and politics. As recently as the 1800s, such nations as China, India, and even Italy looked nothing like they do today but instead were divided into such multiple states, cities, principalities, and alliances. The concept of nationalism was foreign to much of Africa and Asia as well, which were divided by language, culture, tribal ethnicity, politics, and geography. The Westphalia peace agreements ended the Eighty Years’ War between Spain and the Netherlands as well as Germany’s Thirty Years’ War. Sweden’s and France’s borders were clearly identified. The United Provinces of the Netherlands became a nation. A variety of mountainous city-states calling themselves the Swiss Confederation became an independent republic. Germany’s treaty ended a century-long struggle between the Holy Roman Empire and 300 German princes who ruled over a variety of dominions. The Peace of Westphalia recognized the full territorial sovereignty of the member states. The princes were empowered to contract treaties with 1 another and with foreign powers. They became absolute sovereigns in their own dominions: nations. The Versailles Treaty ending World War I further recognized the principle of nationalism with Europe and the Middle East divided into autonomous entities empowered to take care of their own affairs. A number of such brand-new states were carved out of the defeated Ottoman Republic as British administrators created with the stroke of a pen on a map such countries as Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Iran—ignoring geography as well as historic, ethnic, and religious differences. For example, what might have been a homeland for the Kurds was separated by artificial borders and assigned to the new Iraq, Iran, and Turkey. Created by diplomats, Yugoslavia was made up of several intensely rivalrous Balkan states with historical differences and competing interests. It held together until the death of its head of state, Josip Broz Tito, dissolving into such nations as Slovenia, Bosnia, and Serbia and Montenegro. One of the former Yugoslav republics goes by the official United Nations-assigned title of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia since adjacent Greece is worried that declaration of an independent Macedonia would prompt a wave of nationalism among Greek Macedonians, who would want to secede from Greece and join the new all-Macedonian nation. The collapse of Yugoslavia and the dissolution of the Soviet Union at the close of the Cold War resulted in even more independent nations. Nationalism continued to assert itself in such ways as Denmark refusing to give up its national currency in favor of the European Union’s new currency, the euro. Immigration became a controversial issue in Britain, with some vocalizing that the British identity was blurring. Nationalistic parties did well in French and Dutch elections. Polls showed that most people continued to have a strong sense of attachment to their nationality. Globalization was violently opposed in massive worldwide street demonstrations. Yet, significant antinationalistic trends also took place. The European Union transferred significant power from the national level to both local and continental bodies. Historic trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) lowered the economic borders between the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Such counternationalism increased the internationalization of trade markets while weakening the sovereignty and authority of the nation states. Even so, nationalism has maintained its appeal. Belonging to a culturally, economically, or politically strong nation seemingly makes citizens feel better regardless of whether they have made any contribution to that strength. Regrettably, nationalism can have extreme negatives. In the 1980s, a very negative nationalism was projected by an Argentine military junta desperate to avert popular attention from inflation and unemployment as well as institutionalized corruption and the outright murder of thousands of political opponents. Amid loud proclamations of national pride and destiny, Argentina invaded the remote Falkland Islands, proudly proclaiming that Las Islas Malvinas (as Argentines call the islands) had been “liberated” and restored to the Argentine motherland. The few hundred inhabitants, mostly shepherds, spoke English and traced their roots to England. They appealed to Great Britain for rescue. Argentina was startled when the British mobilized, sinking Argentine navy ships, destroying the Argentine air force, and invading the islands, thereby precipitating the collapse of the Argentine government— deposed in a twist of nationalism as the Argentine people repudiated their actions. Whereas this manifestation of Argentine nationalism was politically motivated and manipulated, nationalism has many forms, which can be positive as well as negative and which include ethnic, religious, historical, linguistic, geographical, and civil nationalism.