POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY IS the study of the ways geographic space is organized within and by political processes. It focuses on the spatial expression of political behavior. Boundaries on land and on the oceans, the role of capital cities, power relationships among nation- states, administrative systems, voter behavior, conflicts over resources, and even matters involving outer space have politicogeographical dimensions. Contemplating the state of political geography, Richard Muir observed that “political geography is simultaneously one of the most retarded and most undervalued branches of geography and one that offers the greatest potential for both theoretical and practical advance.” Things had not always been so. Many of the early geographers such as Peter Kropotkin, Sir Halford J. Mackinder, and Isaiah Bowman were explicitly concerned with the relations between politics and geography in both their published work and their public lives. Mackinder, for example, was a member of parliament, a high commissioner in Russia and chairman of various government committees, and Bowman was an adviser to President Woodrow Wilson at the Versailles Peace Treaty meetings. Sadly, this concern with the very stuff of politics waned after Mackinder and Bowman. Geopolitics became discredited by a Nazi association and political geography became an ossified subdiscipline of a tired subject, often taught, never researched, a prisoner of outdated theories. From the disciplinary perspective, political geography may be defined as either geography or political science. In the perspective of political science, political geography appears as “the study of political phenomena in their aerial context,” as one geographer put it.