Nubia, known as the Gateway to the Sudan, does not exist as a political entity in the 21st century. Geographically, the section of Northeast Africa that was once Nubia has been encompassed into northern Sudan and southern Egypt, with cataracts (areas where geological forces have formed outcroppings of rock) along the Nile River determining Nubia’s so-called boundaries. The land once known as Nubia is located between the First Cataract south of Aswan and the Sixth Cataract near Khartoum. Contemporary Nubia ranges from the Nubian Desert, which makes up the easternmost section of the Sahara Desert, to the more fertile Nile Valley area. Since 1970, as a result of the High Dam Project initiated by Egyptian president Gamal Abdul Nasser, most of Nubia has been covered by Lake Nasser, the world’s largest lake. Some 120,000 Nubians were relocated to cities such as Kom Ombo, Sukkot, Mahas, and Halfawi in Egypt and New Halfa and Khashm al- Girba in the Sudan. Some Nubians refused to leave the area, preferring to move to higher grounds away from the dam. In new communities, approximately 85 percent of all Nubian males were forced to find work outside the areas. Some Nubians continue to be employed in traditional service jobs. However, as Nubians have become more educated, large numbers have become doctors, lawyers, teachers, and other professionals. Recently, after years of exile, a number of Nubians returned to the banks of the Nile River through the efforts of the High Dam Lake Development Authority with government grants to establish new agricultural communities.