THE CAPITAL CITY of the state of Israel, Jerusalem is located in the center of the country. Jerusalem is Israel’s largest city, with an area of 48 square mile (126 square kilometer) and a population of 657,500 (2000), of which 68 percent are Jewish and 32 percent mostly Arab. The city is divided into 2 components: West Jerusalem, or the New City, and East Jerusalem, or the Old City, annexed in 1967. Jerusalem is sacred to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The Wailing Wall, the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, and the Dome of the Rock are holy to Jews, Christians, and Muslims. In 1949, Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion declared Jerusalem to be the “eternal capital,” and even though Costa Rica and Honduras hold embassies there, the United States and many countries hold their embassies in and around Tel-Aviv, the previous capital. The site of present-day Jerusalem has been settled by humans since the Stone Age. According to Biblical tradition, King David captured the city from the Jebusites in approximately 1000 Before Common Era and made it the capital of the newly established Kingdom of Israel, until the destruction of the city and the First Temple by the Babylonians in 586 b.c.e. Jerusalem again became the capital of a short-lived Judean kingdom under the Maccabees in 142 Before Common Era It fell under Roman influence, and in 70 C.E., the Romans under General Titus destroyed the Second Temple during a rebellion. In 135, after the rebellion led by Simon Bar Kokhba, the Romans destroyed Jerusalem, renamed the city Aelia Capitolina, and expelled the Jews from Judea.